GENERAL

 GIA LOGO USAGE

 KIMBERLEY PROCESS

 TRADE INFORMATION

 COLORED DIAMOND

The opaque color of black diamonds is caused by dark inclusions or, more commonly, by color treatment. Most black diamonds are treated to become a green that’s so dark it appears black, but not opaque.

Fancy color diamonds are usually cut to maximize the intensity of their color rather than to maximize light return.

The best cut is one that gives the most attractive face-up color.

In the GIA color-grading scale, diamonds that have more color than a Z grade are fancy light yellow. However, lighter shades of fancy yellow diamonds are often more affordable than colourless diamonds, although they are more rare.

On GIA colored diamond reports, colored diamonds are graded in order of increasing color strength from Faint, Very Light, Light, Fancy Light, and Fancy to Fancy Intense, Fancy Vivid, Fancy Dark, and Fancy Deep. Fancy Vivid and Fancy Deep generally command the highest prices.

 

The GIA Colored Diamond Grading Report contains the same comprehensive diamond 4Cs information as the GIA Diamond Grading Report, while the GIA Colored Diamond Identification and Origin Report (the “color-only report”) is limited to color grade and the origin of the color (natural or treated).

COLORED STONES

Although demand for turquoise with fine color and no visible inclusions is consistent worldwide, some collectors prefer the look of turquoise with spiderweb patterns of matrix. Black colored matrix is usually most preferred for contrast but matrix can also be brown, yellow, and other colours.

Every mine produces a wide range of quality. For gems of exceptional quality, an independent determination of origin from a respected laboratory like GIA adds to its provenance, as does a rich history, such as the Colombian emerald region enjoys.

Although it’s always interesting to know where a gem was mined, origin isn’t an important factor in an aquamarine’s value. Famous mines are well-regarded because they produce fine quality gems that are valuable; gems aren’t fine or valuable just because they come from famous mines.

Every mine produces a wide range of quality. For gems of exceptional quality, an independent determination of origin adds to value. For sapphire, Kashmir receives the highest premium although Burma, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar also produce top quality gems.

Buyers must be aware of a common imitation. Called goldstone, it’s made of glass that contains small, flat copper crystals.

Yes. A report like the Identification Report from GIA will confirm whether or not an emerald has been treated.

Most biologists agree the Jurassic Park scenario isn’t possible, as any blood an insect was carrying would deteriorate rapidly and be contaminated with its own DNA. However, scientists have extracted DNA from insects in 120-million year old amber.

 

 

Not all Russian demantoids have these famous chrysotile inclusions. Horsetails are also seen in demantoid from Iran and Italy but not in ones from Namibia or Madagascar.

GIA doesn’t grade alexandrites. GIA Gemological Identification Reports assess the characteristics of a mounted or loose alexandrite (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style and color), say whether it is natural or synthetic, and indicate any detectable treatments.

GIA doesn’t grade aquamarine. GIA Gemological Identification Reports assess the characteristics of a mounted or loose aquamarine (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style and color), say whether it is natural or synthetic, and indicate any detectable treatments.

GIA doesn’t grade emeralds. GIA Gemological Identification Reports assess the characteristics of an emerald (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style and color), determine natural or synthetic, indicate detectable treatments, and can issue an opinion on geographic origin, when possible.

GIA doesn’t grade iolite. GIA Gemological Identification Reports assess the characteristics of a mounted or loose colored stone (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style, and color), indicate any detectable treatments, and give an opinion on geographic origin when possible.

GIA doesn’t grade kunzite. GIA Gemological Identification Reports identify and assess the characteristics (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style, and color) of mounted or loose kunzite and indicate any detectable treatments.

GIA doesn’t grade lapis lazuli. A GIA Gemological Identification Report will include an assessment of the gem’s characteristics (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style, and color), specify if it is an imitation, and indicate any detectable treatments.

GIA doesn’t grade morganite. GIA Gemological Identification Reports list the characteristics of a morganite (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style, and color), state if it’s natural or synthetic, and indicate detectable treatments.

GIA doesn’t grade opals. GIA Gemological Identification Reports confirm the identity and assess the characteristics of a mounted or loose opal (type, weight, measurements, shape, and cutting style) and indicate any detectable treatments.

 

GIA doesn’t grade rose quartz. GIA Gemological Identification Reports list the characteristics of a rose quartz (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style, and color), state if it’s natural or synthetic, and indicate detectable treatments.

GIA doesn’t grade rubies. GIA Gemological Identification Reports assess the characteristics of a ruby (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style and color), say whether it is natural or synthetic, indicate any detectable treatments, and give an opinion on geographic origin, when possible.

GIA doesn’t grade spinels. GIA Gemological Identification Reports assess the characteristics of a mounted or loose spinel (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style and color), say whether it is natural or synthetic, and indicate any detectable treatments.

GIA doesn’t grade sunstone. A GIA Gemological Identification Report will assess the characteristics of the gem (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style, and color), say whether it is an imitation, and indicate any detectable treatments.

GIA doesn’t grade tanzanite. GIA Gemological Identification Reports assess the characteristics of a mounted or loose tanzanite (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style and color), say whether it is natural or synthetic, and indicate any detectable treatments.

GIA doesn’t grade topaz. GIA Gemological Identification Reports identify and assess the characteristics of a mounted or loose topaz (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style and color) and indicate any detectable treatments.

GIA doesn’t grade tourmalines. GIA Gemological Identification Reports assess the characteristics of a mounted or loose tourmaline (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style and color), indicate any detectable treatments, and give an opinion on geographic origin, when it is possible to establish.

GIA doesn’t grade zircon. GIA Gemological Identification Reports identify and assess the characteristics of a mounted or loose zircon (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style and color and indicate any detectable treatments.

The GIA laboratory does not currently offer origin reports for alexandrite.

GIA does offer colored gemstone identification reports for amethyst, but the cost of the report compared to the value of most amethysts means they are uncommon.

GIA does offer colored gemstone identification reports for ametrine. Except for a gem of significant value, the cost of the report compared to the value of most ametrines means reports are not commonly requested.

GIA does offer colored gemstone identification reports for citrine, but the cost of the report compared to the value of most citrines makes the reports uncommon.

You should assume your ruby is heated. Rubies that have a report that confirms there is no evidence of heat from an independent laboratory like GIA command a premium due to their rarity. Rubies that have been diffused or that are glass filled are worth less than heated rubies.

In general, turquoise with a robin’s egg blue color is preferred. Unusual colors like yellow green and pure green are in demand for use in inlay jewelry.

Although jewelers might expect that an amethyst from Siberia or Zambia might have a better color than amethyst from Brazil, origin alone does not add value to amethyst. Value is based on quality, and color is the most important value factor regardless of the country of origin.

Jadeite is available in lavender but not pink. Rare examples of Guatemalan jadeite in a blue color do exist. Terms like pink jade or Mexican jade, Alaska jade, Transvaal jade, or Japanese jade generally refer to other minerals, which may be green or other colors.

Because an emerald could have been filled several times with different substances, GIA does not identify the filling material. GIA Emerald Reports do quantify the amount of filling material present

Look for eye-clean gems with lively, pleasing color and attractive cutting styles.

Heating is an accepted treatment for sapphire. But for fine quality sapphire, confirmation from an independent laboratory like GIA that there is no evidence of heat adds to a sapphire’s rarity and value.

Sapphires treated by lattice diffusion generally cost less than sapphires that have been treated by heat without the addition of color-causing chemicals or sapphires that have not been treated.

Although cobalt blue spinels do owe their vivid color to traces of cobalt, it’s the color that makes them valuable, not the presence of that coloring agent. If your spinel has a rich saturated blue color, it is rare and valuable whether or not it contains traces of cobalt.

There is no official standard for imperial topaz. Some dealers use the term for colors that are orange to pink to red to purple, others reserve the term for certain saturated shades. It’s the color, not the term “Imperial” that gives topaz its value.

GIA tourmaline reports include an opinion on geographic origin when it is possible to establish.

The definition of padparadscha has always been debated. GIA has studied the history of the term and its modern use and indicates on sapphire identification reports when a sapphire, in our opinion, meets the criteria for being described as padparadscha.

Make sure your invoice specifies that the spinel you are buying is natural. If you have any doubt, a report from the GIA lab will confirm that a spinel is natural.

Low zircon’s crystal structure has been altered by thousands of years of irradiation from its own trace elements. It’s typically dark green. High zircon’s gemological properties are higher, so type can be determined with standard gemological testing. Most gems used in jewelry are high zircon.

Emerald value can be range from a few dollars to tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars per carat, depending on quality.

Gems that are scratched can be repolished. If a scratch or chip is deep, a stone might lose weight or diameter so the setting may also need adjustment.

Every mine produces a wide range of quality. The fact that a ruby comes from a famous mine doesn’t mean it is good quality. But fine quality rubies that have documentation of Burmese origin from an independent laboratory like GIA command a premium in the market.

Since both were washed up from the sea, the words for amber and ambergris, a waxy substance secreted by sperm whales, are similar. Ambergris was the base of many perfumes in the ancient world. Although oil made from burned amber was used in ancient scents, it isn’t used today.

Zircon became a December birthstone because it comes in blues similar to turquoise, the other birthstone for that month. Like January’s garnets and September’s sapphires, the variety of colors available in zircon gives people with December birthdays a lot of choice!

The traditional Scandinavian liquor can be flavored with a distillate of amber. The tradition dates back to the use of amber in traditional folk medicine. Amber aquavit is still manufactured today.

Baltic amber is geologically older in origin and generally more valued in the market. Amber from the Dominican Republic is the most likely to contain insect inclusions.

Tanzanite shows different colors in different crystal directions. Because blue is usually located on the short axis of the crystal, it is often more difficult to cut a large blue stone. As a result blue is more rare than purple and commands a premium.

National regulations around the world control the release of gems from irradiation facilities to ensure that it meets safety standards. In the United States, the standard for release and import of topaz is a small fraction of the background radiation that everyone is exposed to every day.

Because yellow quartz colors are rare in nature, most citrine is the result of heating, which converts less-valuable shades of purple amethyst to the golden shades of citrine.

In recent years, moonstone cut in traditional faceted shapes is much more available. Generally very transparent material is faceted. Rose cut moonstone is currently popular and milky material is generally fashioned that way.

Amethyst is appropriate for everyday wear, but its Mohs hardness of 7 means it will show wear over the years and may require repolishing. Today, consumers make unconventional engagement ring choices, choosing birthstones or other colored gemstones rather than diamond. It’s a personal choice.

 

 

The Tom Lantos Block Burmese JADE (Junta’s Anti-Democratic Efforts) Act of 2008 prohibits United States imports of jadeite and ruby from Myanmar, even if the gems are processed in, and exported from, another country. The ban does not apply to gems imported for personal use or prevent U.S. sales of Burmese gems already in the United States.

Lapis lazuli might be dyed to improve its color and conceal any calcite inclusions. Lapis that hasn’t been dyed might be impregnated with wax or oil to improve color and luster. These treatments have only fair stability, and a gemologist can detect them.

Glass, plastic, and ceramic materials have all been used as lapis imitations.

Moonstone is less durable than gems like sapphire, diamond or amethyst. It is vulnerable to scratching and also chipping or cleaving if accidentally hit against a hard surface. Wearing moonstone rings isn’t recommended during sports or at the gym. However, with proper care and attention many people wear moonstone rings for years without any issues. 

Morganite might be heat-treated to modify the color. The effect is often to alter the orange-pink color to a more pure pink. The treatment is routine.

Synthetic morganite is produced, although not in large commercial quantities. It can be separated from the natural material by testing in a gemological laboratory.

The term “pink emerald” is not accepted by GIA. The Institute’s experts feel that it is a misleading term. Both emerald and morganite are varieties of the mineral beryl. Morganite is a beautiful gemstone in its own right and GIA feels it should be referred to as morganite or pink beryl.

Opal isn’t as hard as many gems so it is vulnerable to scratches and chips. If you are tough on your jewelry, make sure you choose a protective setting with metal or gems surrounding the opal or consider your opal ring like silk: beautiful but requiring a bit more care than cotton

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Opal’s value is based on quality, not where it was mined. Fine opal comes from many different localities, including Lightning Ridge in Australia.

 

 

Fine quality turquoise from a known origin like Iran or famous mines like Sleeping Beauty can command a small premium from collectors, but pricing is primarily based on quality, not geographic origin.

Topaz with a vivid purplish pink is the most rare color of topaz: color is more important than country of origin in assessing quality.

Rainbow moonstone is transparent labradorite, a closely related feldspar mineral with sheen in a variety of iridescent colors. Although it’s technically not moonstone, it’s similar enough that the trade has accepted it as a gem in its own right. Today some people prefer it to traditional moonstone.

Rose quartz is occasionally treated with radiation to intensify its color.

Oregon sunstone is not treated to improve its appearance, but pale-colored feldspar from other areas might be enhanced to improve its color.

Tanzanite is not as tough as ruby and sapphire, but many people love their tanzanite rings. If you are active, consider a setting that protects the stone or choosing tanzanite for a ring you don’t wear every day.

Garnets do come in a pure red hue but they are rare in sizes over a half carat. It is much more common to see garnets with a significant brown component to the red or a very dark tone that is perceived as black reflections especially where the garnet absorbs light.

Although small, non-commercial deposits of ametrine have been found in other places, Bolivia is the only commercial source of the gem.

In rare cases zoisite is found in pink and green as well as blue to violet. Although some refer to these colors as pink and green tanzanite, GIA calls them pink and green zoisite.

Quartz is grown in laboratories for industrial purposes and to make synthetic amethyst. Some of the material becomes synthetic citrine quartz.

 

Every mine produces a wide range of quality. The fact that a tourmaline comes from a famous mine doesn’t mean it is good quality. But fine quality tourmalines that have documentation of their Paraiba origin from an independent laboratory like GIA command a premium.

Zircon sometimes contains traces of uranium-238 and it can be very slightly radioactive at levels that pose no health risk when used in jewelry.

Iolite is less durable than gems like diamond or sapphire. Because it is vulnerable to sharp blows, wearing an iolite ring isn’t recommended during sports activities or at the gym. However, with proper care and attention, many people wear iolite rings for years without any issues.

No peridot is known to be heated to improve its appearance. Although the claim is technically true, it’s misleading.

As polished amber continues to age, it oxidizes and darkens on the outside. Many people prefer the look of oxidized amber. Some material is heated to darken it in color to give it that look.

Although collectors enjoy knowing where their peridot was mined, fine peridot comes from many localities. Because Zabargad Island in the Red Sea is not currently commercially producing, gems that can be confirmed as coming from that souDSC_1314rce may command a slight premium due to their historic value.

Some people do store their opals in water. There’s no evidence that it prevents them from drying out but it can’t hurt them and might be a good idea if you live in a very dry climate. Jewelers often put a glass of water in their opal case to make sure that the lights don’t dry out the air too much.

Although the green colors of tsavorite and demantoid overlap, they are different garnet group minerals. Tsavorite is green grossular and demantoid is green andradite. Andradite is softer than grossular but has a higher refractive index and higher dispersion

Lattice diffusion is a treatment process that uses heat and chemicals to diffuse an element into a gemstone to artificially change its color. Lattice diffusion treated sapphires can be any color. In some cases the added color is shallow. In others, it goes all the way through the stone.

 

It means the material has undergone some type of heating process in order to alter or improve its appearance – most commonly, its color.

Although individual companies might create their own quality descriptions, like AAA, AA, A to denote the range of quality of their goods, no standard quality grading scales exist for aquamarine.

Although individual companies might create their own quality descriptions, like AAA, AA, A to denote the range of quality of their goods, no standard quality grading scales exist for peridot.

Although individual companies might create their own quality descriptions, no standardized quality-grading scales exist for ametrine.

Many companies create their own quality descriptions for colored stones. AAA, AA, or A might denote a range of quality for their goods, but there is no single standard quality-grading scale for kunzite.

Synthetic emeralds are generally marketed with the name of the company and the word “created” rather than synthetic. “Laboratory-grown,” “laboratory-created,” “[manufacturer name]-created” or “synthetic” are all permitted to describe man-made materials in the FTC Guides.

The most prized lapis colors are intense medium to dark blue or violetish blue.

Generally, pure pinks to purplish pinks with strong color saturation are the rarest and most valuable morganite colors. Remember that morganite is usually light in color, making it a great pastel gemstone.

The most appealing color typically occurs in larger sizes; small rose quartz specimens with good color tend to be scarce. Rose quartz is usually light in color, making it a great pastel gemstone.

Although many people prize red sunstone most highly, some consumers seek out green or bicolor gems.

 

 

The Tom Lantos Block Burmese JADE (Junta’s Anti-Democratic Efforts) Act of 2008 prohibits United States imports of jadeite and ruby from Myanmar, even if the gems are processed in, and exported from, another country.

Lizards, scorpions, snails, frogs, and complete flowers are rare and valuable. Inclusions that capture a moment in life, like flies caught in a web or predator and prey, are also valued.

In a classification system that is used in Hong King, “B” jade refers to jadeite that has been bleached with acid and then impregnated with polymer resin. “A” jade refers to jadeite that is natural or treated with wax only and “C” jade refers to dyed material.

Bright pure tones of red, blue and green are generally the most valued but the electric vivid green to blue shades of cuprite tourmaline are so exceptional that they are in a class by themselves.

Although individual companies might create their own quality descriptions, like AAA, AA, A to denote the range of quality of their goods, no standard quality grading scales exist for amethyst.

Although individual companies might create their own quality descriptions, like AAA, AA, A to denote the range of quality of their goods, no standard quality grading scales exists for garnet.

Although individual companies might create their own quality descriptions, like AAA, AA, A to denote the range of quality of their goods, no standard quality grading scales exist for spinel.

Although individual companies might create their own quality descriptions, like AAA, AA, A to denote the range of quality of their goods, no standard quality grading scales exist for tanzanite.

Generally this refers to a synthetic sapphire that has been manufactured with trace elements that give it a color change effect similar to a natural alexandrite. Natural sapphires can also show a color change effect but it usually is less pronounced.

Synthetic alexandrites are generally marketed with the name of the company and the word “created” rather than synthetic. “Laboratory-grown,” “laboratory-created,” “[manufacturer name]-created” or “synthetic” are all permitted to describe man-made materials in the FTC Guides.

 

Synthetic rubies are generally marketed with the name of the company and the word “created” rather than synthetic. “Laboratory-grown,” “laboratory-created,” “[manufacturer name]-created” or “synthetic” are all permitted to describe man-made materials in the FTC Guides.

The color of a kunzite is more important than where it was mined. Buy the most vividly colored kunzite you can find.

Because traditionally jade bangles are worn all the time, they are generally made to fit more tightly than gold bangles so they won’t clank against tables but will stay close to your wrist. To more easily fit a small bangle over your hand, put a plastic bag over your hand and slide the bangle over it.Use the same technique to remove the bangle.

Lower quality turquoise is softer and more porous and is often treated to make it durable enough to wear. Fine turquoise is naturally beautiful: because it is rare and in demand it is more valuable.

Blue topaz is more common because the color is produced by treating colourless topaz with radiation. Aquamarine is more rare in nature, especially in fine color. Its long history as a gem also adds to its collectability.

Aquamarine’s color gets more intense as it gets larger. It is very difficult to find small sizes with saturated color: most stones below a carat in size have a pale color.

Iolite is found all over the globe, but it’s not as widely recognized as tanzanite. Some experts believe that jewelry designers and retailers don’t see a consistent enough supply of fine-quality iolite to feel confident about ordering a large selection for use in jewelry lines.

DIAMOND

The number of facets affects the pattern of the reflections in a diamond rather than overall brightness. Diamonds with more facets have more numerous smaller reflections instead of fewer larger reflections. Brightness is a function of proportions, polish and symmetry, not the number of facets.

Yes, The GIA Diamond Cut Grading System, introduced in 2005 after years of extensive research, assigns one of five grades to describe the overall cut quality of a standard round brilliant diamond in the GIA D-to-Z color range.

Yes. GIA offers synthetic diamond grading reports using the same color and clarity boundaries as the grading system for natural diamonds, but with fewer quality grade categories.

GIA uses a standard set of lighting conditions for the color grading of all diamonds.  The light source used is designed to simulate natural sunlight, which contains a component of ultraviolet radiation.  In rare cases, a diamond can emit strong or very strong blue fluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet radiation – in such instances that fluorescence may temporarily and slightly affect its color appearance.

In 2002, a coalition of governments, non-governmental organizations, and the diamond industry established the Kimberley Process to control the export and import of rough diamonds to eliminate the trade in conflict diamonds. Today 99% of diamonds in the marketplace are conflict free.

All GIA reports contain security features such as a hologram, security screen and microprint lines that prevent them from being forged or duplicated. Also, GIA’s Report Check service can verify whether the information on the report matches what’s contained in our database.

You can send your diamond to GIA for grading and analysis. Many consumers send the diamond through a retailer for packaging, shipping and insuring the item. A jeweler will have to remove your diamond from its setting, since GIA Diamond Grading Reports are only issued for unmounted stones.

 

 

 

Many minerals are colourless in their purest state. Anything with a hardness the same as or greater than glass (5 to 6 on the Mohs hardness scale), can scratch glass. Therefore, other gemological tests must be performed to confirm identification.

You can submit your stone to GIA for identification or have a local gemologist help you identify the stone.

Fluorescence is the visible light some gemstones emit when they are exposed to invisible ultraviolet (UV) rays. In natural diamonds, blue is the most common color of fluorescence, but other colors may be visible.

On a GIA Diamond Grading Report, fluorescence refers to the strength, or intensity, of the diamond’s reaction to long-wave UV, which is an essential component of daylight. To learn more about diamond fluorescence

Although GIA does not perform appraisals, a GIA Laboratory report does independently confirm the quality characteristics that determine value. While GIA can’t recommend an individual appraiser, there are several appraisal associations and networks that can help you locate one in your area.

 

PEARL

Over the years, the string stretches and weakens. Your pearls can easily be restrung, just ask your local jeweller for advice.

Although Tahitian cultured pearls are thought of as black most are shades of gray. Some are even copper-colored, pistachio green, or taupe. These unusual colors are popular, either alone or in mixed strands. What makes these pearls exceptional is their iridescent purple, green, turquoise, or pink orient.

Chocolate pearls are Tahitian cultured pearls bleached to a uniform brown color. Because this requires relatively expensive Tahitian pearls as a starting point, many companies now market dyed brown pearls. Rare, rich natural-brown Tahitian pearls are available but exceptionally rare.

 

 

When a foreign body becomes lodged inside a mollusk, the organism develops a sac around the irritant, secreting calcium carbonate in the form of nacre to cover it. As the mollusk deposits layers of nacre, the pearl gradually grows in size. Natural pearls occur randomly in nature, without the aid of human intervention, and are quite rare. Cultured pearls are cultivated by man when technicians instigate nacre formation process.

Majorca Pearl is a brand name of imitation pearls that were originally manufactured in Majorca, Spain. They are glass balls covered in lacquer.

Freshwater pearls are typically found in mollusks known as mussels and can come from any freshwater source like rivers, lakes or ponds. Russian, European and North American rivers and lakes have all produced pearls throughout history. In fact, natural freshwater pearls have been found in almost every country. At the present time, most freshwater pearls are cultured, and the overwhelming majority of cultured freshwater pearls come from China.

Freshwater cultured pearls are one of the jewelry world’s biggest bargains. Production is so large that lovely lustrous examples are affordable, particularly in off-round shapes. One reason that they are plentiful is that each mollusk produces dozens of pearls, unlike some others, which only grow one pearl per shell.

Knots help keep you from losing all your pearls if the string breaks, and experts recommend knots in between each pearl to prevent them from rubbing against each other.

TREATMENTS

There is no difference between the terms “treatment” and “enhancement”. They are both used to describe any artificial process that alters the appearance, especially the color or clarity, of any gem material.

COLORED DIAMOND REPORTS

Highly skilled graders working in tightly controlled viewing and lighting environments compare each diamond to a standard set of color comparators in order to consistently determine the diamond’s characteristic color and assign a color grade.

 

GIA’s D-to-Z color grading system is based on the relative absence of color. GIA’s colored diamond color grading is based on the presence of color. GIA describes color in terms of hue (the color), tone (relative lightness or darkness), and saturation (intensity). Hue (like pink) is modified by a “Fancy-grade” term (Fancy Light, Fancy, Fancy Intense, Fancy Deep, Fancy Vivid or Fancy Dark) which describes the effect of both tone and saturation.

COLORED STONE REPORTS

Yes. Analysis needed to produce a GIA Colored Stone Identification Report, Origin Report, and Analytical Report can be performed on mounted colored stones.

GIA doesn’t grade sapphires. GIA Gemological Identification Reports assess the characteristics of a sapphire (weight, measurements, shape, cutting style and color), determine natural or synthetic, indicate detectable treatments, and can issue an opinion on geographic origin, when possible.

For each item submitted, a gemologist uses a battery of traditional and advanced instruments to perform a variety of analytical investigations, including microscopic examinations, and tests to determine an item’s gemological identity and detect any treatments. The process is independently repeated by a second gemologist, and may be further examined by additional gemologists and researchers as needed.

This is a judgment of the degree of clarity enhancement: minor (F1), moderate (F2), and significant (F3). “Minor” enhancement indicates the treatment has had only a slight effect on the face-up appearance, whereas “significant” indicates an obvious effect on the appearance.

Ruby, sapphire, emerald and paraiba tourmaline all qualify for a GIA Colored Stone Origin Report. However, that does not mean GIA will be able to determine a country of origin in every instance.

The grading of colored stones is a highly complex process with countless variables. Unlike GIA’s diamond grading system, no one grading system has been embraced by the trade.

DIAMOND

The GIA Diamond Cut microsite documents the development of the GIA Cut Grading System, and provides a wealth of downloadable aticles, charts, and tools to help you apply the system to your business.

GIA Facetware® is a free online service that allows you to access GIA’s database of more than 38.5 million diamond proportion sets in order to estimate the cut grade for any standard round brilliant diamond in the GIA D-to-Z color range and Flawless-to-I3 clarity range.

DIAMOND REPORTS

 

GIA does not certify or appraise any material submitted for analysis. GIA reports (not certificates) offer technical information on the dimensions, quality and identifying characteristics of a diamond and value may be determined from this information; however, no appraisal value is stated.

Yes, GIA grades all polished diamonds regardless of shape or brand. However, we are only able to issue a cut grade for a D-to-Z color standard round brilliant diamond.

No. GIA does not grade filled diamonds, since filling a diamond with glass is not a stable, permanent treatment and grading results would be affected if the filler is damaged or removed.

 

Diamond buyers rely on GIA grading reports to validate a diamond’s quality. GIA operates under a set of core principles to safeguard the accuracy, objectivity and integrity of every report issued. We invest heavily in research, staff, and technologies to ensure consistent and accurate analysis, and we rigorously monitor our processes to protect against any breach in conduct or security.

Diamonds are weighted to the thousandth (.001) of a carat and then rounded to the nearest hundredth (.01). The stone will only be rounded up to the nearest hundredth if the thousandth digit is a 9. For example, a stone that weights 1.768 cts. Would be rounded to 1.76 cts., but one that weights 1.769 cts. Would be rounded to 1.77 cts.

An internationally accepted system for visually evaluating the appearance of fancy-cut diamonds does not exist at this time.  At GIA, research is underway to develop the basic concepts for designing and implementing such a system.

A GIA report contains a full scientific and unbiased assessment of your diamond’s 4Cs. GIA tests every diamond submitted to establish its authenticity as a diamond and whether it’s been subjected to treatments. GIA reports provide a full description of the diamond, including color, weight, measurements, and cutting style, and disclose any known treatments.

We grade only loose diamonds because a mounting or setting can obscure or influence the color, cut, and clarity grade and make it difficult to determine an exact carat weight. Grading loose stones also allows GIA to detect any treatments applied to the diamond without damaging the stone or the mount.

OTHER SERVICES

Yes. Your items are insured while undergoing grading and analysis at GIA

Yes. For D-to-Z color diamonds and some colored diamonds, service can be completed same day if the item is received by 10 a.m. For colored stones and pearl services, the identification report can be completed 48-72 hours from when the item was received but can be dependent on the gemstone type.

Rush services can vary by location, so please check the availability with your local client services representative.

 

To authorize an individual to have access to your GIA account and to pick up your items, GIA needs you to sign a letter of authorization. Please send the letter prior to the pick up so your account can be updated. The individual will also need the original receipt in order to pick up the items. Check with your local client services representative for more details.

No. GIA does not unmount and remount stones. However, Colored Diamond Identification and Origin Report service and most identification services for colored stones and pearls can be performed on mounted items.

If the stone you would like to submit is mounted and the service requires a loose stone, you’ll need to take the item to a local jeweller.

Not at this time.

To convert your current GIA report to a different report type, submit the diamond along with its original GIA report and note that you would like Report Conversion service on your Service Order Request, specifying the new report type you would like. The diamond will go through the grading process and a new report will be issued.

We no longer offer duplicate reports. If you have the report number and would still like to view the information on your report, you are able to view the report data through Report Check. If your report is dated after July 1, 2010, a PDF version of the report is also available to view or download.

Upon receipt, each item is immediately weighed and measured and assigned a control number in a detailed tracking process. Although all items you submit to GIA undergo the grading and analysis process with complete anonymity, this tracking process ensures that your stone will be returned to you.

If your report is dated January 1, 2013 or later, complete a Report Reissue Request Form and submit it to any laboratory or intake location with your original report.  You do not need to turn in your gemstone. All reports reissued in the 2014 format will retain the date of the original report. View.

If your report is dated prior to January 1, 2013, you will need to submit the report and the diamond for an Update Service.

PEARL REPORTS

 

Yes, however more pearls or items on a single report will be described using measurement ranges, gross weights, and will likely result in more general grouped conclusions. If the pearls are not matched, they are only eligible for a Pearl Identification Report.

Nacre thickness is an optional description on GIA Pearl Classification Reports for bead cultured pearls. However, if the thickness of the nacre coating is too thin to sustain normal wear, then this fact will always be disclosed on the report.

“Predominantly” is used on GIA reports on an infrequent basis to provide a general or overall opinion on the identity of pearls where there are too many to identify individually or where the structures may enable a general idea to be obtained but really require more detailed analysis to confirm fully. The overall structure would indicate one identity more than another. For example the initial microradiography work on a strand of pearls may show that many pearls exhibit suspect or non-bead cultured pearl structures yet some pearls may not show enough to reach such a conclusion. Instead of stating “non-bead cultured pearls” on the report, GIA would, in such a case, state “Predominantly non-bead cultured pearls” .

If you don’t want every pearl tested in an item, you can ask for Random Sample service.

GIA uses a comprehensive standard it developed over a 60-year period of ground-breaking research on pearls. The GIA 7 Pearl Value Factors™ provide a systematic way to evaluate pearls of all types, and to describe their quality in a way everyone can understand. The GIA 7 Pearl Value factors are: Size, Shape, Color, Nacre, Luster, Surface, and Matching.

 

 

Microradiography is the only sure non-destructive way of seeing the internal structure of pearls. All pearls, apart from some imitation pearls, are subject to this analysis and this test can be used to separate natural-color from treated-color pearls and to determine if a pearl is natural or cultured.

REPORT CHECK

 

If you’re a retailer or industry professional, you may qualify for the Report Check Plus service.  This service gives you direct access to the GIA database to retrieve grading results and report PDFs for up to 20 items a session. It’s a great way to get PDF files of your reports to post on your website, without having to scan each report yourself.  The service is free and available through My Laboratory. 

With the launch of our new site in March 2013, we needed a safe and secure way to protect your report data from web crawlers, or internet applications designed to extract data, and still provide access to GIA diamond, colored stone, and pearl reports. Our prior system worked only for those reports that have carat weight as a field. So we needed to implement a more general, yet secure validation for Report Check.

  • What is Report Check Plus?

Report Check Plus is designed specifically for retailers and industry professionals who need an easy way to verify a large number of reports or download multiple report PDFs. This service gives you direct access to the GIA database to retrieve grading results and report PDFs for up to 20 items per session. It’s a great way to get PDF files of your reports to post on your website, without having to scan each report yourself.  The service is free and available through My Laboratory.

STONE SUBMISSION

Yes, a personal FedEx account can be used when GIA receives your completed Release of Liability.

The Israel laboratory location requires an appointment scheduled through My Laboratory to submit items. Other laboratory locations and service centres are on a first-come, first-serve basis. Please contact your local client services representative for further details.

Please make the request in writing, signed by the owner or president of the company (or owner of the account if not in the gem and jewelry industry), and email it to labservice@gia.edu, fax it to (760) 603-1814, or mail it to your local GIA laboratory location.

 

 

To get a copy of your invoice or view your account balance, log into your My Laboratory account and go to View Invoices. To make a payment, please call a client services representative at (760) 603-4500, ext 7590.

A Principle of the company must send the requested information to labservice@gia.edu, or fax to (760) 603-1814, or mail to your local GIA laboratory location. The email or signed letter must include all changes to be made to the account including adding or removing an authorized representative or changing the contact information on the account.  An updated Client Agreement is not required.

To create a new account, you must complete the Client Agreement, filling out all forms and signing where indicated. You can return the signed signature pages to GIA with your first shipment. Once GIA receives your signed Client Agreement, we will provide you with your client number. You can use this client number to create a My Laboratory account, allowing you to manage your account online.

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You need to sign a client agreement every time a new version is published. If a new signed client agreement is required, GIA will mail or email it to you for you to complete and return with your next shipment.

You are required to disclose if you know, suspect, or are unsure that the material has undergone treatment or is a product of gem synthesis. Learn more about disclosing treated or synthetic gem material when submitting stones to GIA for service.

SYNTHETIC DIAMOND REPORTS

TREATMENTS

DISTANCE EDUCATION

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